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Summer 1990

Citizen politics aims to spur a democratic resurgence at the grassroots. But as other forms of democratic participation decline, can citizen organizing make a difference?

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Unless you are an activist yourself, your personal contact with the world of citizen politics probably occurs when your doorbell rings. A canvasser, usually a young person with a clipboard and leaflets, tries to engage you in a discussion of a contemporary problem, perhaps toxic waste dumps, pesticides in the food chain, or rising utility rates. If you sign a petition or contribute a few dollars, you'll receive more material. Engage in a longer conversation and you may be recruited for active membership.

You're also likely to encounter citizen organizing by mail or telephone. There, too, you're asked for a financial contribution to help stop wars, prevent nuclear holocaust, slow ozone depletion, or protect abortion rights, free speech, gene pools, or animals. Occasionally, you may see rallies or demonstrations sponsored by these groups on television, but you will probably remain unaware of who or what is behind "Citizens for..." or "Citizens against...".

Citizen organizing, by neighborhood and by issue, is now entering its fourth decade and becoming a well-established feature of the American political landscape. Some activists and theorists see it as a big departure from conventional politics. They credit citizen organizations with reviving grassroots democracy, empowering previously marginalized groups, introducing issues to the public agenda excluded by more powerful interests, transforming passive citizens into active ones, inspiring a new populist revolt, restoring a progressive political coalition, and addressing social problems government has failed to solve.

Citizen organizations have undoubtedly increased participation, particularly at the local level. Yet any close observer of citizen organizations discerns a paradox. Their growth has occurred at a time when, by most measures, civic and political participation has deteriorated. Voting turnout rates have declined steadily even as these organizations have grown. Partisan affiliation has dwindled, as money has become the most important form of participation. Citizens consume political information mostly through one-way channels. The general public distrusts political institutions in general and politicians in particular. And while serving as a new medium of public activism, citizen organizations face some important constraints on their political role, in part because of requirements for successful fund-raising and for retaining tax-exempt status. As a result of both the larger political context and the limitation of community organizing itself, this movement has not done as much to empower the poor, revive democratic citizenship, or create new political majorities as its adherents have hoped. How to understand and remedy those limitations is the subject of a continuing debate.

Drupal Sub-themes using SASS

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by Alexandra Atzl

Being relatively new to Drupal, I was overwhelmed recently by the task of implementing a base theme and three sub-themes for a customized system of Drupal sites we were developing at Singlebrook. I needed a clear, simple way to write the necessary CSS code, without having to repeat it up to four times.

The basic principle governing this entire project was to be as lightweight as possible. We wanted an end product with no repetitive or unnecessary code, and that would be relatively future-proof. Across the board, we strove to avoid unnecessary modules and to create our own custom ones to perform just the functionality we needed; no more and no less. We avoided Views, made generous use of Drupal hooks and theme functions, and ended up with a site that does what we want, without overly-large modules and excess code slowing it down.

On the theming side, we knew we needed to deliver three different themes to the client (#1, #2, #3), plus an additional base theme, which would mostly mirror theme #2. We also knew we wanted to use (now that I've begun using it, I'm completely reluctant to return to plain ol' CSS, and I think all of Singlebrook agrees).

Jeff A , one of our Drupal developers, set up a clever Guardfile in each of our themes that would run Compass to compile our SASS files, and then run LiveReload on a specified port to immediately reload our browser windows any time a .css or .js file was saved. This way, I could easily view any changes I was making on my external monitor, without having to switch windows and refresh the page (more on configuring Guard in a future post!).

Our base theme was made up of a series of specific .scss files for different parts of our site. I created _base_header.scss , _base_footer.scss , _base_sidebar.scss , etc. as partials, and then used a single base_style.scss file to import all the styles I needed. This is where I imported compass and adidas F50 Messi Adizero FG Solar Orange/Power Teal cheap shop offer discount genuine 2014 sale online best place to buy online outlet Manchester vXKuJ
, our chosen grid system, as well. Another key was the use of a variables.scss partial, to store all our variables and clearance 2014 pay with paypal sale online Teva Womens Arrabelle Slide Leather Sandal White discount purchase k4uK7O
in one convenient place.

Using this setup (shown above), all our styles were compiled into a single base_style.css file, which was then inherited by each sub-theme.

Each sub-theme then had its own compiled css file, named style.css . Drupal sub-themes will override inherited css files if they have their own version of a file with the same name; because we wanted to inherit the base styles and then modify them on a per theme basis, the theme-specific css files were each called style.css in their respective directories, and our base css file was called base_style .

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