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Call a doctor if your child:

Check with your doctor if your child:

Watchful waiting is a period of time during which you and your doctor observe your child's symptoms or condition without using medical treatment. Watchful waiting is not appropriate if:

Most doctors can diagnose diabetes. After your child has been diagnosed, your doctor will work with you to build a treatment plan that fits your child's needs. Health professionals who may be involved in the treatment of children with type 2 diabetes include:

Exams and Tests

Many children have no symptoms before they are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.

If a doctor suspects that your child may have type 2 diabetes, he or she will do a medical history, physical exam, and blood glucose testing. If the results of these tests meet the NIKE Mens Huarache V Lax Cleated Shoe Team Orange/White order sale online ABHq2Cb8
established by the American Diabetes Association (ADA), your child has diabetes.

Other possible tests

If it is hard to tell whether your child has type 2 or type 1 diabetes, your doctor may do a C-peptide test or test for autoantibodies. (Autoantibodies are produced when the body's immune system does not work right.) For example, many people with type 1 diabetes produce the autoantibody zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8Ab). People with type 2 diabetes do not produce ZnT8Ab. These tests may not be able to confirm the type of diabetes your child has. Getting a definite diagnosis may take months or years. In either case, your child's sugar levels will need to be controlled right away.

Monitoring tests if diagnosed with diabetes

Because your child is at risk for diabetes complications (eye, heart, kidney, nerve, liver, and blood vessel problems), he or she needs to see a doctor regularly for tests to monitor type 2 diabetes .

Early detection

If your child is overweight and gets little or no exercise, he or she may be at risk for type 2 diabetes . Early detection and treatment for type 2 diabetes can prevent or delay problems from the disease.

Treatment of type 2 diabetes in children focuses on keeping blood sugar levels within a target range . Children may need higher blood sugar goals than adults, because their bodies are still developing. Also, they may not be able to recognize symptoms of low blood sugar . To reach his or her target blood sugar, your child needs to eat healthy meals of appropriate portion size and get daily exercise. Treatment also may include medicine.

A healthy diet with the right amount of calories will help your child achieve target blood sugar levels and maintain a healthy weight. The meal plan designed for your child will spread best store to get cheap price eastbay Liberty Girls Orange Casual Shoes discount cost QqbGCSm4P5
(starches and sugary foods) throughout the day. This helps prevent high blood sugar after meals as well as weight gain . A registered dietitian can design a meal plan that not only fits your child's needs but also is a healthy eating plan for your family. For more information, see the topic Healthy Eating for Children .

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Original by Philip Gibbs 1997.

Before the seventeenth century, it was generally thought that light is transmitted instantaneously. This was supported by the observation that there is no noticeable lag in the position of the Earth's shadow on the Moon during a lunar eclipse, which would otherwise be expected if c were finite. Nowadays, we know that light moves just too quickly for the lag to be noticeable. Galileo doubted that light's speed is infinite, and he devised an experiment to measure that speed by manually covering and uncovering lanterns that were spaced a few miles apart. We don't know if he ever attempted the experiment, but again c is too high for such a method to give an even remotely accurate answer.

The first successful measurement of c was made by Olaus Roemer in 1676. He noticed that, depending on the Earth–Sun–Jupiter geometry, there could be a difference of up to 1000 seconds between the predicted times of the eclipses of Jupiter's moons, and the actual times that these eclipses were observed. He correctly surmised that this is due to the varying length of time it takes for light to travel from Jupiter to Earth as the distance between these two planets varies. He obtained a value of c equivalent to 214,000 km/s, which was very approximate because planetary distances were not accurately known at that time.

In 1728 James Bradley made another estimate by observing stellar aberration, being the apparent displacement of stars due to the motion of the Earth around the Sun. He observed a star in Draco and found that its apparent position changed throughout the year. All stellar positions are affected equally in this way. (This distinguishes stellar aberration from parallax, which is greater for nearby stars than it is for distant stars.) To understand aberration, a useful analogy is to imagine the effect of your motion on the angle at which rain falls past you, as you run through it. If you stand still in the rain when there is no wind, it falls vertically on your head. If you run through the rain, it comes at you at an angle, and hits you on the front. Bradley measured this angle for starlight, and knowing the speed of the Earth around the Sun, he found a value for the speed of light of 301,000 km/s.

The first measurement of c that didn't make use of the heavens was by Armand Fizeau in 1849. He used a beam of light reflected from a mirror 8 km away. The beam was aimed at the teeth of a rapidly spinning wheel. The speed of the wheel was increased until its motion was such that the light's two-way passage coincided with a movement of the wheel's circumference by one tooth. This gave a value for c of 315,000 km/s. Leon Foucault improved on this result a year later using rotating mirrors, which gave the much more accurate value of 298,000 km/s. His technique was good enough to confirm that light travels slower in water than in air.

Even when you are careful and do all the right things, your child can have problems with low or high blood sugar. Teach your child to look for signs of low and high blood sugar and to know what to do if this happens.

Young children can't tell if they have low blood sugar as well as adults can. Also, after your child has had diabetes for a long time, he or she may not notice low blood sugar symptoms anymore. This raises the chance that your child could have low blood sugar emergencies. If you are worried about your child's blood sugar, do a Dunham Mens Blair SlipOn Black sale official site Y2p9iRdWJ
. Don't rely on symptoms alone.

Both low and high blood sugar can cause problems and need to be treated. Your doctor will suggest how often your child's blood sugar should be checked.

See your child's doctor at least every 3 to 6 months to check how well the treatment is working. During these visits, the doctor will do some tests to see if your child's blood sugar is under control. Based on these results, the doctor may change your child's treatment plan.

When your child is 10 years old or starts puberty, he or she will start having exams and tests to look for any problems from diabetes.

Your child's insulin dose and possibly the types of insulin may change over time. The way your child takes insulin (with shots or an insulin pump ) also may change. This is especially true during the teen years when your child grows and changes a lot.

What and how much food your child needs will also change over the years. But it will always be important to eat about the same amount of carbohydrate at each meal. Carbohydrate is the nutrient that most affects blood sugar.

Health Tools help you make wise health decisions or take action to improve your health.


Type 1 diabetes develops because the body's immune system destroys beta cells in a part of the pancreas called the islet tissue. Beta cells produce insulin. So children with type 1 diabetes can't make their own insulin. Experts do not know what causes this to happen. But the cause may involve family history and maybe environmental factors like diet or infections.

Type 1 diabetes develops when your child's pancreas stops producing enough discount 2014 unisex with paypal Vans Unisex Sk8Hi Slim Womens Skate Shoe Leather Vans Footwear Zephyr Blue Blanc cheap release dates IHpBkE0fe
. Insulin lets blood sugar-also called glucose-enter the body's cells, where it is used for energy. Without insulin, the amount of sugar in the blood rises above a safe level. As a result, your child experiences high and low blood sugar levels from time to time. High blood sugar can damage blood vessels and nerves throughout the body and increases your child's risk of eye, kidney, heart, blood vessel, and nerve diseases.

Causes of high blood sugar

Causes of low blood sugar


Because your child has type 1 diabetes, he or she will experience high and low blood sugar levels from time to time. High blood sugar usually develops slowly over hours or days, so you can treat the symptoms before they become severe and require medical attention. On the other hand, your child's blood sugar level can drop to dangerously low levels in minutes.

Be alert for:

How can you tell the difference?

Sometimes it's hard to distinguish between high and low blood sugar symptoms , especially if your child is very young. Test your child's blood sugar whenever you think it may be high or low so that you can treat it appropriately. If your child has symptoms of very high blood sugar, such as a fruity breath odor, vomiting, and/or belly pain, seek emergency care. These symptoms may point to cheap real Block Heel Boots Tan Sarah J free shipping many kinds of cheap sale buy outlet top quality clearance with mastercard m8llxSSclc
, which is a life-threatening emergency.

What Happens

Every child experiences type 1 diabetes differently.

The negative effects of diabetes are caused by blood sugar levels that are above or below a target range .

Low blood sugar

Very low blood sugar is a frightening experience for you and your child. But if low blood sugar levels are treated quickly and appropriately, your child should have no lasting effects.

Young children cannot recognize low blood sugar symptoms as well as adults can, which puts them at risk for low blood sugar emergencies. Children who develop Easy Steps Derick clearance hot sale 8WVCoy
, which is the inability to recognize early symptoms of low blood sugar until they become severe, or who are trying to keep their blood sugar levels tightly within a target range are also at risk for low blood sugar emergencies.

Make sure your child's caregivers, such as school nurses, know:

Let your doctor know if your child is having frequent episodes of low blood sugar. You can Womens Sperry TopSider Crest Vibe Satin Lace Sneaker free shipping great deals sale buy clearance cost cheap sale footaction NGfbtEEWJm
(What is a PDF document?) to keep a record of your child's very high or very low blood sugar levels.

High blood sugar

Very high blood sugar puts your child at risk for diabetic ketoacidosis , a life-threatening emergency. Skipping insulin injections, stress, illness, injury, and puberty can trigger high blood sugar. Because blood sugar levels usually rise slowly, you can treat symptoms early and, most often, prevent diabetic ketoacidosis.

High blood sugar can also lead to:

What can be done?

The best way to help your child with type 1 diabetes live a long and healthy life is to keep his or her blood sugar levels within a target range. Work with your child's doctor, and monitor blood sugar levels frequently.

What Increases Your Risk

Risk factors for very high or low blood sugar levels in a child with type 1 diabetes include:

Call 911 or other emergency services right away if your child:

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The Society for Research on Adolescence (SRA) focuses on the theoretical, empirical, and policy research issues of adolescence. As a community of researchers, our goals are to advance understanding of adolescence and enhance the well being of youth in a globalized world.

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2018 SRA Non-sponsored Events

Peer Relationships Pre-Conference

Date: Wednesday April 11, 2018 Time: 11:30am – 6:00pm Location: General Session in Duluth Room (3rd Floor); Breakouts in Directors Row 3 and 4 (3rd Floor) Contact: Kristina McDonald, Website: Emerica Provost Slim Vulc Skate Shoe Black/White outlet store cheap price prices cheap online zEiMvKUa

The preconference will present cutting-edge research and ideas for next steps in the subfield of adolescent peer relationships. Breakout sessions will focus on peer relationships and new ideas in related domains (e.g., ethnic and racial identity, social cognition, parent and sibling influences, friendships, romantic relationships, aggression, and psychophysiology).

Romantic Relationships Pre-Conference

Date: Wednesday April 11, 2018 Time: 2:30pm – 6:00pm Location: Symphony Ballroom 1 (2nd Floor) Contact: Graciela Espinosa-Hernandez,

This preconference focuses on cutting-edge research in the field of Adolescent Romantic and Sexual Relationships. It will consist of keynote presentations, an expert panel of senior-level researchers to discuss the future directions, and a “speed dating” event so participants can network and learn from each other.

Identity Scholars Meeting The International Society for Research on Identity (ISRI)

Date: Wednesday, April 11, 2018 Time: 1:00pm – 4:30pm Location: Conrad B/C (2nd Floor) Contact: Janet Gebelt,

The International Society for Research on Identity (ISRI) will meet to discuss theory and research on the role of identity in psychosocial development. The session will begin with a meet and greet period at 1:00 pm. At 1:30 pm, ISRI President Moin Syed will officially open the meeting, followed by brief reports from ISRI officers on organizational activities, including planning for the 2019 Conference. The reports will be followed by a panel presentation focusing on methodological issues in the study of identity development and small group discussions of issues raised by the panel. The session will conclude with poster presentations. We welcome submissions to our poster session. The ISRI meeting is open to anyone interested in identity (you do not need to be an ISRI member!) and is free to all. For further information about ISRI and the pre-session meeting (including registration and the call for posters) please visit our website, www.identityisri.org. You can also contact the ISRI program chair, Sara Johnson (s.johnson@tufts.edu) or Janet Gebelt, ISRI Secretary (jgebelt@westfield.ma.edu), with questions.

Youth Civic Engagement Preconference: Brew Talks

Date : Wednesday, April 11, 2018 Time : 5:00pm – 7:30pm Location :Inbound BrewCo

Kick off the Society for Research on Adolescence biennial meeting by joining scholars who study, think, and care about youth civic engagement at an informal gathering in downtown Minneapolis on Wednesday April 11th from 5:00 – 7:30 PM. This will be a fun opportunity to connect with researchers and practitioners with shared interests. This event will take place at Inbound BrewCo, and will feature Brew Talks – short presentations by several attendees to get feedback on emerging ideas or pressing problems in the field of youth civic engagement. Ample time will be devoted to informal discussions. Come experience a taste of downtown Minneapolis at one ofthe city’s newest breweries and share in lively discussion about youth civic engagement research and practice. All are welcome to attend!

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. Drop-ins are also welcome!

There is no cost to attend. Appetizers will be provided. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages will be available for purchase. Food truck on site for additional food purchases.

Location: 701 N. 5th Street (North Loop) Minneapolis, MN 55401 (inboundbrew.co) Walkable from the conference hotel (weather permitting) or short ride via Uber or light rail.

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), or Laura Wray-Lake ( wraylake@ucla.edu ).

Memorial in honor of Jari-Erik Nurmi Hosted by Shmuel Shulman and Brett Laursen

Memorial remembering Jari-Erik Nurmi the person and hiscontribution to the field.

Date: Thursday, April 12, 2018 Time: 7:30pm – 8:30pm Location: Conrad B (2nd Floor) Contact :Shuel Shulman; shuel.shulman@biu.ac.il for questions.

Journal of Adolescence Reviewer Reception

Date : Thursday, April 12, 2018 Time : 7:00 pm – 9:00 pm Location : Directors Row 3 (3rd Floor) Contact: Victoria Egelbaum, Naot Footwear Womens Krista Polar Sea Leather/Nickel Rivets cheap hot sale free shipping exclusive sDAFU

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